- Created: Tuesday, 08 March 2011 14:58
- Last Updated: Tuesday, 24 January 2012 17:29
- Published: Tuesday, 08 March 2011 14:58
- Written by Frank Pearce and Steve Tombs
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The analysis of Bhopal throughout this series of articles draws particularly upon the discussions in Pearce (1987), Pearce and Tombs (1989, 1993, 1998), as well as the other references below, which form part of an enormous literature on the disaster. We also draw upon DвАЩSilvaвАЩs (2006) The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the WorldвАЩs Deadliest Industrial Disaster, the most elaborate defence yet of UCCвАЩs sabotage theory, but also, inadvertently, subversive of it too.
Internet references are in bold and have their links built in to their titles.
Abraham, M. (1985) The Lessons of Bhopal: a community action resource manual on hazardous technologies, Penang: International Organization of Consumers Unions.
Agarwal, A., Merrifield, J., Tandon, R. (1985) No Place to Run: Local Realities and Global Issues of the Bhopal Disaster, New Market, Tennessee: Highlander Center and Society for Participatory Research in Asia.
APPEN (1986) The Bhopal Tragedy - One Year Later, Penang: Sabahat Alam Malaysia (Friends of the Earth Malaysia).
ARENA (1985) Bhopal: Industrial Genocide? Hong Kong: Arena Press.
Bakan, J. (2004), The Corporation, New York: Penguin.
Banerjee, B. (1986) Bhopal Gas Tragedy-Accident or Experiment? New Delhi: Paribus Publishers and Distributors.
Baxi , U. (1986) вАШInconvenient Forum and Convenient Catastrophe: The Bhopal CaseвАШ, in Baxi, U. and Paul, T., eds., Mass Disasters and Multinational Liability, New Delhi: Indian Law Institute.
Bergman, D. (1988) вАШThe sabotage theory and the legal strategy of Union CarbideвАЩ, New Law Journal, 138, June 17.
Blake, P.G. and S. Ijadi-Maghsoodi, вАШKinetics and Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of Methyl IsocyanateвАЩ, International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, vol.14, (1982), pp. 945вАУ52.
Blum, U. (1998) Positive Externalities and the Public Provision of Transportation Infrastructure: An Evolutionary PerspectiveвАЩ, Journal of Transportation and Statistics, Vol. 1 No. 3, October: pp: 1-8.
Callon, M. and B. Latour (1981). Unscrewing the Big Leviathan: how actors macrostructure reality and how sociologists help them to do so. In K. D. Knorr-Cetina and A. V. Cicourel (Eds.) Advances in Social Theory and Methodology: Toward an Integration of Micro- and Macro-Sociologies. Boston, Mass, Routledge and Kegan Paul: 277-303.
Cassels, J. (1993) The Uncertain Promise of Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Chopra, S.K. (1986) The Bhopal Disaster and the Indian Legal and Administrative System: what is wrong and what to do. Paper presented at the International Bar Association, New York, September.
Chouhan, T.R. and others (1994) Bhopal, The Inside Story. Carbide Workers Speak Out on the WorldвАЩs Worst Industrial Disaster. New York: Apex Press.
Coffee, J (1981) вАШвАЬNo soul to damn, no body to kickвАЭ: an unscandalized essay on the problem of corporate punishmentвАЩ, Michigan Law Review, 79.
DвАЩSilva S. (2006) The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the WorldвАЩs Deadliest Industrial Disaster. Victoria: Trafford Publishing.
D'Silva, T. D. J. D, Lopes, A., Jones, R.L. Singhawangcha, S., Chan, J.K. (1986) вАШStudies of methyl isocyanate chemistry in the Bhopal incidentвАЩ, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 51 (20).
Darmondy,S.J. (1988) вАШAn economic approach to Forum Non Conveniens dismissals requested by US multinational corporations - the Bhopal caseвАЩ, George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics, Vol. 22, 215-51.
Dinham, B., Dixon, B. and Saghal, G. (1986) The Bhopal Papers. London: Transnationals Information Centre.
Eckerman, I. (2005) The Bhopal Saga: Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster. Hyderabad: Hyderabad Universities Press.
Edwards, T. and Fontenot , W. (2007) 'Letter to the Editor: Black Box of Bhopal fails to hide Dow LiabilityвАЩ, Chemical and Engineering News, August.
Everest, L. (1986) Behind the Poison Cloud: Union CarbideвАЩs Bhopal Massacre. New York: Banner Press
Fischer, M.J. (1996) вАШUnion Carbide's Bhopal Incident: A RetrospectiveвАЩ , Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 12, 257-69
Freebairn, D.K. (1995) вАШDid the Green Revolution Concentrate Incomes?' A Quantitative Study of Research ReportsвАЩ. World Development, 23, 2.
Granada (1986) The Betrayal of Bhopal, Produced by Laurie Flynn.
Hanna, B., Morehouse, W. and Sarangi, S., eds. (2005) The Bhopal Reader: Remembering Twenty Years Of The World's Worst Industrial Disaster. New York: Apex.
Hazarika, S. (1987) Bhopal: The Lessons of a Tragedy. Delhi: Penguin Books (India).
ICFTU-ICEF (1985) The Report of the ICFTU-ICEF Mission to study the causes and Effects of the Methyl Isocyanate Gas Leak at the Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in Bhopal, India, on December 2nd/3rd 1984. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions/International Federation of Chemical, Energy, and General Workers Unions.
International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal (2010) Bhopal Survivors Call Verdict and Trial Utter Disappointment. Press Statement for immediate release on June 7.
International Coalition for Justice in Bhopal (1987) We Must Not Forget - A Plea for Justice for the Bhopal Victims. Penang: International Organization of Consumers Unions.
Jasanoff, S. (1994) вАШIntroduction: learning from disasterвАЩ in S. Jasanoff , ed., Learning from Disaster: Risk Management After Bhopal. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jensen, M.C. and Meckling, W.H. (1976) вАШTheory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs, and Ownership StructureвАЩ Journal of Financial Economics, 3 (4).
Jones, K. (1982) Law and Economy: The Legal Regulation of Corporate Capital. London: Academic Press.
Jones, T. (1988) Corporate Killing: Bhopals Will Happen. London: Free Association
Kalelkar, A. (1988) вАШInvestigation of large magnitude incidents - Bhopal as a case studyвАЩ, Institute of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No.110. Preventing Major Chemical and Related Process Accidents, Rugby: IChemE.
Kletz, T. (1988) Learning from Accidents in Industry. London: Butterworths.
Kolko, J. (1988) Restructuring the World Economy. New York: Pantheon.
Kurtzman, D. (1987) A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe. New York: McGraw Hill
Lapierre, D. and Javier Moro, (2002) Five Past Midnight at Bhopal. New York: Warner Bros
Luban, D. (1987) вАШContrived IgnoranceвАЩ, Georgetown Law Journal, vol. 87, no. 4.
MacKenzie D. (2002) Fresh evidence on Bhopal disaster, New Scientist, 19.
Miller, P. and Rose, N. (1990) 'Governing economic life', Economy and Society, 19:1,
Morehouse , W. . and Subramaniam, M. A. (1986) The Bhopal Tragedy. New York: Council on International and Public Affairs.
Muchlinski, P.T. (1987) вАШThe Bhopal Case: Controlling ultrahazardous industrial activities undertaken by foreign investorsвАЩ, The Modern Law Review, 50, 5.
Mukherjee, S. (2010) Surviving Bhopal: Dancing Bodies. Written Texts, and Oral Testimonials in the Wake of an Industrial Disaster. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Neale, W.C. (1971) Trade and Market in the Early Empires. New York: The Free Press.
Network First (1995) вАШBhopal: the second tragedyвАЩ ITV, 31st January. New York.
Pearce, F.(1987) вАШвАЭYou Bury Our MistakesвАЭ: Union Carbide, Bhopal and the Hubris of a Capitalist TechnocracyвАЩ Occasional Paper No. 3, Centre of Criminology, Middlesex Polytechnic
Pearce, F. (1990) вАШResponsible Corporations and Regulatory AgenciesвАЩ, The Political Quarterly, 61, (4).
Pearce, F. (2001) вАШCapitalist Business Organizations' in Neal Shover (ed) Crimes of Privilege, New York, Oxford University Press.
Pearce, F. and S. Tombs (1989) 'Bhopal: Union Carbide and the Hubris of the Capitalist Technocracy, Social Justice, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.116-44.
Pearce, F. and Tombs, S. (1993) вАШUS Capital versus the Third World: Union Carbide and BhopalвАЩ, in Pearce, F. and Woodiwiss, M., eds., Global Crime Connections, London: Macmillan.
Pearce, F. and S. Tombs (1998) Toxic Capitalism: Corporate Crime and the chemical Industry. Aldershot: Ashgate
Rao, G.J. VK Sharma, RK Jadhav, AK Saraf and Heeresh Chandra (1994) 5. "Pyrolysis of the Residue of Tank 610 of UCIL with Reference to BhopalAerosol Disaster". EverymanвАЩs Science, XXIX (4) (1994) 98-100.
Sandberg, H. (1985) Union Carbide Corporation: A Case Study. Geneva: International Management Institute.
Scandrett, E., Mukherjee, S., Shah, D., Tarunima Sen, T. and many named and unnamed Bhopal survivors and activists (2009) Bhopal Survivors Speak: Emergent Voices From A PeopleвАЩs Movement, Bhopal SurvivorsвАЩ Movement Study, Word Power Books, Edinburgh.
Sharan M., and Gopalakrishnan S.G. (1997) вАШBhopal gas incident: a numerical simulation of the gas dispersion eventвАЩ Environmental Modelling and Software (1997), Vol. 12, pp 135-41.
Shrivastava, P. (1987) Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company. 2nd Ed. (1992) London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Shrivastava, P. (1993) вАШThe Greening of BusinessвАЩ, in Smith, D., ed., Business and the Environment, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Smith, M.A., ed. (1986) The Chemical Industry After Bhopal: An International symposium. London: IBC Technical Services Ltd.
Sriramachari, S. and Heeresh Chandra (1997) вАШThe Lessons of Bhopal [Toxic] MIC Gas Disaster Scope for Expanding Global Biomonitoring and Environmental Specimen BankingвАЩ, Chemosphere, Nos 9/10.
UCC (1963a) CHF Mellon Institute. The feasibility of using methyl isocyanate as a warning agent in liquid carbon monoxide. Report 26-23. Sponsored by Union Carbide Chemicals, Co. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-910000271. 5 pp.
UCC (1963b) CHF Mellon Institute. 1963b. Range finding tests on methyl isocyanate. Report 26-75. Sponsored by Union Carbide Chemicals, Co. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-910000658. 6 pp.
UCC (1966) CHF Mellon Institute. 1966. Miscellaneous acute toxicity data. Report 28-141. Sponsored by Union Carbide Chemicals, Co. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-910000267. 2 pp.
UCC (1970) CHF Mellon Institute. 1970. Acute inhalation toxicity, human response to low concentrations, guinea pig sensitization, and cross sensitization to other isocyanates. Report 33-19. Sponsored by Union Carbide Chemicals, Co. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-910000268. 8 pp.
UCC (1971) Haines, R. G. (1971) Ingestion of aldicarb by human volunteers: a controlled study of the effect of aldicarb on man. Unpublished report with addendum for Union Carbide Union Carbide Corporation.
UCC (1976) Methyl Isocyanate. Union Carbide F-41443A - 7/76. Union Carbide Corporation, New York.
UCC (1979) Behl VK, Agarwal VN, Choudhary SP, Khanna S. Operating Manual Part-II. Methyl Isocyanate Unit. Bhopal: Union Carbide India Limited, Agricultural Products Division 1979.
UCC (1985) Operating Manual Part II. Methyl Isocyanate Unit. Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Incident. Investigation Team Report. Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, CT.
UCC (1987) Letter and Documents to International Coalition for Justice in Bhopal with excerpts from UCC. Submission to the Indian Courts, Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, CT.
UCC (1988) Report, commissioned by Union Carbide, by Arthur D. Little Investigation of Large-Magnitude Incidents: Bhopal as a Case Study. Union Carbide Corporation.
UCC (1989) Presence of Toxic Ingredients in Soil/Water Samples Inside Plant Premises. Union Carbide Corporation.
UCE (1973) Union Carbide Proposal accompanying Internal Memorandum of 2 December 1973. Excerpted at www.bhopal.net/oldsite/unproventechnology.html.
UCIL (1978) Carbon monoxide, phosgene and methyl isocyanate. Unit safety procedures manual. Bhopal: Union Carbide India Limited, Agricultural Products Division.
URG (1985a) The Bhopal MIC Disaster, the Beginnings of a Case for Workers Control: a First Report. Bombay: The Employees Union Research Group (Union Carbide India Limited).
URG (1985b) The Role of Management Practices in the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster: a Second Report. Bombay: The Employees Union Research Group (Union Carbide India Limited).
Varma D.R, and Gust I (1993) вАЬThe Bhopal Accident and methyl isocyanate toxicityвАЭ, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 40.
Varma, R. and Varma, D.R. (20003) вАШThe Bhopal Disaster of 1984вАЩ Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 23, No. X, Month 2003, 1-9.
Weir, D. (1986) The Bhopal Syndrome: Pesticide Manufacturing and the Third World. Penang: International Organization of Consumers Unions.
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To go to the Pearce and Tombs column: Crimes of the Powerful and Insurgent Resistance.
A FREE e-copy of Toxic Capitalism can be downloaded at Frank Pearce's website here.